We publish about our VR research in scientific journals,
in collaboration with Dutch and international colleagues.

Here you will find a list of articles:



van der Stouwe ECD, Booij SH, Geraets CNW, Pot-Kolder RMCA, Kuranova A, van der Gaag M and Veling W. Daily-life stress reactivity and recovery following virtual-reality-based cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with a psychotic disorder. Frontiers Psychiatry 2024 fpsyt.2024.1360165. [link]

Riches S, Kaleva I, Nicholson SL, Payne-Gill J, Steer N, Azevedo L, Vasile R, Rumball F, Fisher HL, Veling W & Valmaggia L. Virtual Reality Relaxation for Stress in Young Adults: A Remotely Delivered Pilot Study in Participants’ Homes. J. technol. behav. sci. 2024. [link]




Hidding M, Veling W, Pijnenborg GHM, van der Stouwe ECD. A single-session VR intervention addressing self-compassion and self-criticism with and without perspective change: Results of a randomized controlled experiment. Behav Res Ther. 2023 Dec 20;173:104466. [link]

Geraets CNW, Dolfijn R, Robbemond L, Scholte A, Klein Tuente K, Veling W. Virtual Reality aggression prevention training for people with mild intellectual disabilities: a feasibility study. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities. 2023. [link]

Hedström R, Wallinius M, Sygel K, Geraets CNW. Virtual reality-assisted assessment of paranoid ideation in forensic psychiatric inpatients: a mixed-methods pilot study. Frontiers Psychology. 2023. [link]

Woicik K, Geraets CNW, Klein Tuente S, Masthoff E, Veling W. Virtual reality aggression prevention treatment in a Dutch prison-based population: a pilot study. Frontiers Psychology. 2023; Nov 14;14:1235808. [link]

Riches S, Nicholson SL, Fialho C, Little J, Ahmed L, McIntosh H, Kaleva I, Sandford T, Cockburn R, Odoi C, Azevedo L, Vasile R, Payne-Gill J, Fisher HL, van Driel C, Veling W, Valmaggia L, Rumball F. Integrating a virtual reality relaxation clinic within acute psychiatric services: A pilot study. Psychiatry Research. 2023 Nov;329:115477. [link]

Riches S, Taylor L, Jeyarajaguru P, Veling W, Valmaggia L. Virtual reality and immersive technologies to promote workplace wellbeing: a systematic review. J Ment Health. 2023 Mar 15:1-21. doi: 10.1080/09638237.2023.2182428. [link]

Meins IA, Muijsson-Bouwman DC, Nijman SA, Greaves-Lord K, Veling W, Pijnenborg GHM, van der Stouwe ECD. VR-SOAP, a modular virtual reality treatment for improving social activities and participation of young people with psychosis: a study protocol for a single-blind multi-centre randomized controlled trial. Trials 2023; 24:278. [link]

Nijman SA, Veling W, Timmerman ME, Pijnenborg GHM. Trajectories of Emotion Recognition Training in Virtual Reality and Predictors of Improvement for People with a Psychotic Disorder. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 2023; 26:288-299 [link]

Riches S, Jeyarajaguru P, Taylor L, Fialho C, Little J, Ahmed L, O’Brien A, van Driel C, Veling W, Valmaggia L. Virtual reality relaxation for people with mental health conditions: a systematic review. Social Psychiatry an Psychiatric Epidemiology 2023. [link]





Nijman SA, Pijnenborg GHM, Vermeer RR, Zandee CER, Zandstra DC, van der Vorm D, de Wit-de Visser AC, Meins IA, Geraets CNW, Veling W. Dynamic Interactive Social Cognition Training in Virtual Reality (DiSCoVR) versus Virtual Reality Relaxation (VRelax) for People With a Psychotic Disorder: A Single-Blind Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2022. [link]

Van Pelt BJ, Nijman SA, Van Haren NEM, Veling W, Pijnenborg GHM, Van Balkom DC, Landlust AM, Greaves-Lord K. Dynamic Interactive Social Cognition Training in Virtual Reality (DiSCoVR) for adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A feasibility study. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 2022. [link]

Jeppesen UN, Due AS, Mariegaard L, Pinkham A, Vos M, Veling W, Nordentoft M, Glenthøj LB. Face Your Fears: Virtual reality-based cognitive behavioral therapy (VR-CBT) versus standard CBT for paranoid ideations in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a randomized clinical trial. Trials. 2022 Aug 15;23(1):658. [link]

González Moraga FR, Klein Tuente S, Perrin S, Enebrink P, Sygel K, Veling W, Wallinius M. New Developments in Virtual Reality-Assisted Treatment of Aggression in Forensic Settings: The Case of VRAPT. Frontiers Virtual Reality. 2022; 2:675004. [link]

Geraets CNW, Wallinius M, Sygel K. Use of Virtual Reality in Psychiatric Diagnostic Assessments: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Psychiatry; 2022. [link] 

Review article on recent publications from 2016 that use VR as a diagnostic tool. Consistent differences were found between patient groups and controls, but this is a field where further development is needed.





Veling W, Lestestuiver B, Jongma M, Hoenders HJR, van Driel CJ.  Virtual Reality Relaxation for Patients With a Psychiatric Disorder: Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial. Med Internet Res; 2021. [link]

First study on the effect of VR relaxation on psychiatric problems. Ten minutes of VR relaxation use has a strong positive effect on experienced stress and emotions.

Geraets CNW, van der Stouwe ECD, Pot-Kolder R, Veling W.Advances in immersive virtual reality interventions for mental disorders: A new reality? Curr Opin Psychol; 2021. [link]

This article provides an overview of the latest developments in virtual reality treatments for mental health problems. New techniques are promising!

Berkhof M, van der Stouwe ECD, Lestestuiver B, van’t Hag E, van Grunsven R, de Jager J, Kooijmans E, Zandee CER, Staring ABP, Pot-Kolder RMCA, Vos M & Veling W. Virtual reality cognitive-behavioural therapy versus cognitive-behavioural therapy for paranoid delusions: a study protocol for a single-blind multi-Centre randomised controlled superiority trial. BMC Psychiatry; 2021. [link]

This article describes the research protocol of VR-TOPIC. In this study, which started in 2019, we will investigate whether the VR-CBT treatment works faster or better than the regular CBT treatment for paranoia in people with a psychotic disorder.

Nijland JWHM, Veling W, Lestestuiver BP & Van Driel CMG. Virtual Reality Relaxation for Reducing Perceived Stress of Intensive Care Nurses During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Psychology; 2021. [link]

During the COVID pandemic, we used VRelax to relax nurses in the intensive care unit of the UMCG. More than 60% of nurses found VRelax helpful.

Geraets CNW, Klein Tuente S, Lestestuiver BP, van Beilen M, Nijman SA, Marsman JBC, Veling W. Facial emotion recognition in social environments: a virtual reality eye-tracking study. Internet Interventions; 2021. [link]

Emotion recognition in a VR, photo and video task are very similar. Also, people look at emotional faces of avatars in a similar way to real faces.





Klein Tuente S, Bogaerts S, Bulten E, Keulen-de Vos M, de Vos M, Bokern H, van IJzendoorn S, Geraets CNW, Veling W. Virtual Reality aggression prevention therapy (VRAPT) versus waiting list control for forensic psychiatric inpatients: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020. [link]

Geraets CNW, Snippe E, van Beilen M, Pot-Kolder R, Wichers M, van der Gaag M, Veling W. Virtual reality based cognitive behavioral therapy for paranoia: effects on mental states and the dynamics among them. Schizophrenia Research. 2020. [link]

Pot-Kolder R, Veling W, Geraets CNW, Lokkerbol J, Smit F, Jongeneel A, Ising H, van der Gaag M. Cost-effectiveness of virtual reality cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis. Journal of Medical Internet research. 2020. [link]

Nijman SA, Veling W, Greaves-Lord K, Vos M, Zandee CER, aan het ROT M, Geraets CNW, Pijnenborg GHM. Dynamic Interactive Social Cognition Training in Virtual Reality (DiSCoVR) for People With a Psychotic Disorder: Single-Group Feasibility and Acceptability Study. JMIR Mental Health. 2020. [link]





Nijman SA, Veling W, Greaves-Lord K, Vermeer R, Vos M, Zandee CER, Zandstra D, Geraets CNW, Pijnenborg GHM. Dynamic Interactive Social Cognition Training in Virtual Reality (DiSCoVR) for social cognition and social functioning in people with a psychotic disorder: Study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial. BMJ Psychiatry. 2019. [link]

Counotte J, Bergink V, Pot-Kolder R, Drexhage HA, Hoek HW, Veling W. Inflammatory cytokines and growth factors were not associated with psychosis liability or childhood trauma. PLoS ONE. 2019. [link]

Geraets CNW, Veling W, Witlox M, Staring A, Matthijssen S, Cath D. Virtual reality based cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with generalized social anxiety disorder: a pilot study. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2019. [link]

Klein Tuente S, Bogaerts S, Veling W. Hostile attribution bias and aggression in adults-a systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior; 2019[link]





Klein Tuente S, Bogaerts S, IJzendoorn S van, Veling W. Effect of virtual reality aggression prevention training for forensic psychiatric patients (VRAPT): study protocol of a multi-center RCT. BMC Psychiatry; 2018. [link]

Jongeneel A, Pot-kolder R, Counotte J, Gaag M van der, Veling W. Self-esteem moderates affective and psychotic responses to social stress in psychosis: A virtual reality study. Schizophrenia Research; 2018. [link]

Pot-Kolder R*, Geraets CNW* Veling W, Beilen M van, Staring ABP, Gijsman HJ, Delespaul PAEG, Gaag M van der. Virtual-reality-based cognitive behavioural therapy versus waiting list control for paranoid ideation and social avoidance in patients with psychotic disorders: a single-blind randomised controllef trialThe Lancet Psychiatry; 2018. [link]

Pot-kolder R, Veling W, Counotte J, Gaag M van der. Anxiety partially mediates cybersickness symptoms in immersive Virtual Reality environment. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking; 2018. [link]





Pot-Kolder R, Veling W, Brinkman WP, Gaag M van der. Virtual Reality and psychotic disorders. In: Bouchard S, Rizzo S (Eds), Virtual Reality technology for health and clinical applications. Springer, Heidelberg, in press.

Counotte J, Drexhage AA, Wijkhuijs JM, Pot-Kolder R, Bergink V, Wijbrand Hoek W, Veling W. Th17/T regulator cell balance and NK cell numbers in relation to psychosis liability and social stress reactivity. Brain Behavior and Immunity; 2017. [link]

Veling W, Sjollema MJ, Brada BC. Reducing the impact of stress in patients with psychiatric disorders using swimming with wild, free dolphins in virtual reality. In: Powell W, Rizzo S (Eds), Virtual Reality: Recent Advances for Health and Wellbeing. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppage, NY, 2017.

Pot-Kolder R, Veling W, Counotte J, Gaag M van der. Self-reported cognitive biases moderate the associations between social stress and paranoid ideation in a virtual reality experimental study. Schizophrenia Bulletin; 2017. [link]

Geraets CNW, Beilen M van, Pot-Kolder R, Counotte J, Gaag M van der, Veling W. Social environments and interpersonal distance regulation in psychosis: A virtual reality study. Schizophrenia Research; 2017. [link]





Veling W, Counotte J, Pot-Kolder R, Os J van, Gaag M van der. Childhood trauma, psychosis liability and social stress reactivity: a virtual reality study. Psychological Medicine; 2016. [link]

Counotte J, Pot-Kolder R, Roon A van, Hoskam O, Gaag M van der, Veling W. High psychosis liability is associated with altered autonomic balance during exposure to Virtual Reality social stressors. Schizophrenia Research; 2016. [link]

Veling W, Pot-Kolder R, Counotte J, Os J van, Gaag M van der. Environmental Social Stress, Paranoia and Psychosis Liability: A Virtual Reality Study. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2016; 42:1363-1371. [link]

Pot-Kolder R, Veling W, Geraets C, Gaag M van der. Effect of virtual reality exposure therapy on social participation in people with a psychotic disorder (VRETp): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials; 2016;17: 25. [pdf]





Pot-Kolder R, Zandee E Gaag M van der. Virtual Reality exposure therapie bij psychose: een casus. Directieve Therapie; 2015; 35(1), 5-14. [link]

Isnanda RG, Brinkman WP, Veling W, Gaag M van der, Neerincx M. Controlling a stream of paranoia evoking events in a virtual reality environment. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 2014; 199:55-60. [link]

Veling W, Brinkman W, Dorrestijn E, Mark van der Gaag. Virtual reality experiments linking social environment and psychosis: a pilot study. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking; 2014. [link]

Veling W, Moritz S, Gaag M van der. Brave New Worlds-Review and Update on Virtual Reality Assessment and Treatment in Psychosis.  Schizophrenia Bulletin; 2014. [link]

Isnanda RG, Brinkman W, Veling W, Gaag M van der, Neerincx M. Priming to induce paranoid thought in a non-clinical population. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 2013; 191:95-99. [link]

Brinkman W, Veling W, Dorrestijn E, Sandino G, Vakili V,  Gaag M van der. Virtual reality to study responses to social environmental stressors in individuals with and without psychosis. Studies in health technology and informatics; 2011. [link]